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LET’S EXPLORE NAM:
- Network animator tool used to provide graphical view in NS2 simulation
- It reads the animation events from large trace files and provides graphical output for the user to view the overall simulation result.
- To use NAM, the first step is to create the trace file. Trace files contains the topology information like nodes, links, packet traces etc.
- After the trace files get generated, it is ready to be animated by NAM.
- Nam will read the trace file and create a topology, pop up a window and do layout if necessary.
- Through NAM user interface, it provides control to many aspects of animation.
NS COMMANDS FOR CREATING AND CONTROLLING NAM:
- Node represents a router or host
- These are created from “n” trace event of trace file
- NAM will get terminated if there are two duplicate definitions for same node.
- Node specific attributes are color, label, shape, position of label, label-color, adding / deleting mark on node etc
- Node can generally have three shapes[square, circle, hexagon]
Following OTCL commands are used to set the node attributes:
$ node color [ color ]// to set color of node
$ node label [ label ] // to set label on node
$ node shape [ shape ] //to set shape of node
$ node label – at [ ldirection ] //to set the position of label
$ node label – color [ lcolor ] //to set the color of label
$ node add mark [ name ] [ color ] [ shape ] //to add mark to the node
$ node delete – mark [ name ] //to delete mark from the node
FOR LINKS AND QUEUE:
- To create a network topology using nodes, links are used
- NAM links are internally simplex but looks like duplex links to the user as trace event “1” creates two simplex links.
- Queues are constructed between two nodes in NAM. NAM queue are simplex link visualized as stacked packets
- Command to set up different animation attribute to the link is given as:
$ns duplex – link – op attribute value
- Here attribute can be a color, orient, queuePos, label etc. Link orientation is used to define the angle between a link and horizontal.
Example command for each attribute :
$ ns duplexlink – op orient right //orientation set to right
$ ns duplexlink –o p color “pink”
$ ns duplexlink – op queuePos 1.0
$ ns duplexlink – op label “a”
FOR AGENTS AND FEATURES:
- Agents are always associated with nodes. They are used to separate protocol states from nodes.
- Each agent has a name which acts as a unique identifier for it.
- It is represented as a square with its name inside and connects with its associated node using a line link
- Commands used to support Agent tracing is given as:
$ ns add – agent -t race \ < agent\ > \< name\ > \<optional: tracefile\>
$ ns delete – agent – trace \< agent\ >
$ ns monitor – agent – trace \< agent\ >
- tracevar method of ns agent is used to create feature traces of given variable in the agent.
Example code to create traces of the variable xl_ in an SRM agent is given as:
$ ns attach – agent $n( $i ) $srm ( )
$ ns add – agent – trace $ srm( $i ) srm( )
$ ns monitor – agent-trace $srm( ) //to turn NAM monitor on from the start
$ srm ( ) tracevar XL_
- $ ns color color_id [defines color index for NAM]. Once it is specifies, color id can be used in place of color name in NAM trace
- $ ns trace annotate annotation [to insert annotation in NAM]. It is used to control NAM events
- $ ns set animation rate time step [Set the animation play out rate to the given time step value]
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