NS2 Projects for B.Tech
NS2 Projects for B.Tech is The series of discrete event network simulators are named (from network simulator). In this ns-1, ns-2 and ns-3 are the different types of network simulators use in Ns2 B.Tech. All of them are primarily used in research and teaching and name as discrete-event network simulator.
In this Ns2 projects for B.Tech uses a Linux based simulator tool to perform network simulations. The C++ and TCL programming Languages are use in Ns2 B.Tech. To define network configuration where TCL uses simple commands in Ns-2 projects. And C++ allows users to adjust protocol functionalities and also to define new protocols in detail. Presently, over 300,000 lines of source code is use in Ns-2 projects-for-B.Tech.
Here Ns2 probably a comparable amount of contribute code that is not integrate directly into the main distribution (many forks of ns-2 exist, both maintain and unmaintained). Projects for B.Tech runs on FreeBSD, Mac OS X Solaris, GNU/Linux, and Windows versions that support Cygwin. The GNU General Public License is provide to use under projects for B.Tech.
It uses network protocols. The Network protocols which are use in transmission which use aggressive re-transmissions. This re-transmission is to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion even after the initial load has reduce to a level which would not normally have induce network congestion. Thus, networks using these protocols on Ns2 B.Tech can exhibit two different stable states under the same level of load. Congestive collapse is define as the stable state with low throughput.
All network resources are limit, including router processing time and link throughput. This is the main fundamental problem for network simulators.
- By a single personal computer can also fill a wireless LAN
- the backbone can easily be congest by a few servers and also client PCs Even on fast computer networks (e.g. Gigabit Ethernet)
- No problem filling an uplink or some other network bottleneck also to aggregate transmission from P2P networks
- botnets are capable of filling even the largest Internet backbone network links, also generating large-scale network congestion caused by Denial-of-service attacks
- A mass call event can also overwhelm digital telephone circuits In telephony networks (particularly mobile phones)
The intermediate routers could also handle when more packets were sent to the network. Expecting the end points of the network to retransmit the information where the intermediate routers discard many packets. However, early TCP implementations had very bad retransmission behavior on packet transmission.
The end points sent extra packets that repeat the information lost when this packet loss occurr. Exactly the opposite of what done during congestion when doubling the data rate sent. This problem push the entire network into a ‘congestion collapse’ where most packets were lost and the resultant throughput was negligible. Results in Congestion Collapse
Modeling is a very complex and time-consuming task since ns-2 is often criticized. Because there is no GUI and one needs to learn scripting language, queuing theory and modeling techniques when using ns-2. The results of our proposed approaches are not consistent (probably because of continuous changes in the code base) and that certain protocols have unacceptable and unavoidable bugs are noted.