**How to Calculate Network Sum rate at Each Cell in NS2**

To calculate Network Sum Rate in ns2 has a numerous steps to follow and its parameters is usually used in wireless networks, especially in multi-cellular systems, to evaluate the total data rate performed by all users in a given cell. The sum rate is the collection of individual user data rates (throughput) in each cell, usually expressed in bits per second (bps).

In NS2, to calculate the sum rate for each cell needs to aggregate the throughput of all the users (or nodes) served by the base station in that specific cell and totalling them up. This contains to estimating the throughput of each user and then gathers the outcomes for all users within a cell.

The given below is the procedure to calculate the network sumrate at each cell in ns2:

**Steps to Calculate Network Sum Rate at Each Cell in NS2**

**Model the Cellular Network in NS2**

In NS2, a **cell** can be signified as a cluster of nodes (user equipment or UE) that interact with a **base station (BS)**. Each node or UE sends information to or receives data from the base station that behave as hub for the cell.

To model this, we can describe the base stations and the UEs in each cell. For instance, let’s assume a basic configuration of multiple UEs is associated to one base station in each cell.

# Define the base station and UEs for each cell

set bs1 [$ns node] ;# Base station for cell 1

set ue1_1 [$ns node] ;# UE 1 in cell 1

set ue1_2 [$ns node] ;# UE 2 in cell 1

# Define another cell

set bs2 [$ns node] ;# Base station for cell 2

set ue2_1 [$ns node] ;# UE 1 in cell 2

set ue2_2 [$ns node] ;# UE 2 in cell 2

# Set up duplex links between UEs and base stations

$ns duplex-link $ue1_1 $bs1 10Mb 10ms DropTail

$ns duplex-link $ue1_2 $bs1 10Mb 10ms DropTail

$ns duplex-link $ue2_1 $bs2 10Mb 10ms DropTail

$ns duplex-link $ue2_2 $bs2 10Mb 10ms DropTail

Here, **bs1** and **bs2** are the base stations for **cell 1** and **cell 2**, correspondingly, and **ue1_1**, **ue1_2** signify users (UEs) in **cell 1**, while **ue2_1** and **ue2_2** are users in **cell 2**.

**Generate the Trace File**

We want to permit the trace file generation in NS2 to log the packet transmission and reception events. This will enable you to monitor the throughput of individual UEs (or users) in each cell.

# Enable tracing

set tracefile [open out.tr w]

$ns trace-all $tracefile

The trace file will record packet events such as + (packet sent), r (packet received), and d (packet dropped), beside with the packet size and other details.

**Calculate Throughput for Each User (UE)**

The **throughput** of each user can be estimated by counting the size of all effectively received packets and dividing by the simulation time. We can utilize an **AWK script** to evaluate the trace file and estimate the throughput for each UE.

**AWK Script to Calculate Throughput for Each UE:**

awk ‘{

if ($1 == “r” && $4 == “tcp”) { # Only consider received TCP packets

if ($3 == 1) { # Check if packet is received at base station 1 (bs1)

ue1_total_bytes += $6; # $6 is the packet size in bytes

}

if ($3 == 2) { # Check if packet is received at base station 2 (bs2)

ue2_total_bytes += $6;

}

}

} END {

simulation_time = 100.0; # Replace with actual simulation time in seconds

# Convert total bytes to bits and calculate throughput for each UE

ue1_throughput_bps = ue1_total_bytes * 8 / simulation_time; # Throughput in bps for cell 1

ue2_throughput_bps = ue2_total_bytes * 8 / simulation_time; # Throughput in bps for cell 2

print “Cell 1 Throughput: ” ue1_throughput_bps ” bps”;

print “Cell 2 Throughput: ” ue2_throughput_bps ” bps”;

}’ out.tr

In this script:

**$3 == 1**refers to the packets received by the**base station 1 (bs1)**.**$3 == 2**refers to the packets received by**base station 2 (bs2)**.- It calculates the total number of bytes received for each cell and then converts it to
**throughput in bits per second (bps)**.

**Calculate Sum Rate for Each Cell**

The **sum rate** for each cell is the combined of the throughput of all UEs within that cell. Once we estimate the throughput for each UE, simply total them to acquire the sum rate for the cell.

**AWK Script to Calculate Sum Rate:**

awk ‘{

if ($1 == “r” && $4 == “tcp”) { # Only consider received TCP packets

if ($3 == 1) { # Check if packet is received at base station 1 (bs1)

cell1_total_bytes += $6; # Sum the packet size in bytes for cell 1

}

if ($3 == 2) { # Check if packet is received at base station 2 (bs2)

cell2_total_bytes += $6; # Sum the packet size in bytes for cell 2

}

}

} END {

simulation_time = 100.0; # Replace with actual simulation time in seconds

# Convert total bytes to bits and calculate sum rate (bps) for each cell

cell1_sum_rate_bps = cell1_total_bytes * 8 / simulation_time;

cell2_sum_rate_bps = cell2_total_bytes * 8 / simulation_time;

print “Sum Rate for Cell 1: ” cell1_sum_rate_bps ” bps”;

print “Sum Rate for Cell 2: ” cell2_sum_rate_bps ” bps”;

}’ out.tr

This script:

- Sums the total bytes received by all UEs in
**cell 1**and**cell 2**. - Converts the bytes to bits and divides by the total simulation time to acquire the
**sum rate in bits per second (bps)**for each cell.

**Interpret the Results**

- The
**sum rate**for each cell denotes the total throughput accomplished by all users in that cell. - A higher sum rate refers that the cell is managing more data efficiently; however a lower sum rate can signifies congestion or poor resource allocation.

**Monitor Sum Rate over Time**

If we need to monitor how the sum rate changes over time in the course of the simulation, we can adjust the AWK script to estimate the sum rate for each cell in time intervals such as every 1 second.

**AWK Script to Calculate Time-Windowed Sum Rate:**

awk ‘{

if ($1 == “r” && $4 == “tcp”) {

interval = int($2); # Group events by time intervals (in seconds)

if ($3 == 1) {

cell1_total_bytes[interval] += $6; # Sum bytes for cell 1 per interval

}

if ($3 == 2) {

cell2_total_bytes[interval] += $6; # Sum bytes for cell 2 per interval

}

}

} END {

for (interval in cell1_total_bytes) {

cell1_sum_rate_bps = cell1_total_bytes[interval] * 8; # Convert to bits

print “Time Interval: ” interval ” s, Cell 1 Sum Rate: ” cell1_sum_rate_bps ” bps”;

}

for (interval in cell2_total_bytes) {

cell2_sum_rate_bps = cell2_total_bytes[interval] * 8; # Convert to bits

print “Time Interval: ” interval ” s, Cell 2 Sum Rate: ” cell2_sum_rate_bps ” bps”;

}

}’ out.tr

This script will print the **sum rate** for each time interval such as per second for each cell, enable to monitor how the sum rate changes over time.

In the above procedure will help you to calculate the network sumrate at each cell within the ns2 simulation tool that needs to calculate the data rate achieved by all users in a particular cell. Let ask if you need more details about this we will offer.

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