LTE is a type of communication developed by the 3GPP which is expected as future technology of cellular networks in the place of 3.5G (HSPA+). In Radio Access Networks, Evolved NodeB has the core authority to manage Packet Scheduling and Radio Resource Management (RRM) operations. 

From this article, we make you learn the basics and importance of LTE and LTE QoS Parameters with innovative research notions!!!

For better understanding, here we have given you an end-to-end LTE system design as an illustration. In this, it will describe the working process of LTE which ranges from radio resource access to service handling

Important Examples of LTE QoS Parameters

End-to-End LTE Architecture

  • Radio Access Network (RAN)
    • User Equipment
    • enodeB and Home eNodeB
  • Advanced Packet Core
    • Mobility Control Entity
    • Packet and Serving Gateway
    • LTE enabled Security Gateway
  • Control of Policy
    • Policy Control and Charging for Routing and Enforcement operations
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
    • Media Resource Operation
    • Application Server

Similar to other systems, the Quality of Service (QoS) in LTE also creates an effect on the decision of admission control. Commonly, the LTE QoS Parameters assured connections need a huge number of resources. If there are inadequate resources, then the connections will be automatically blocked.

What is QoS in LTE?

Next, we can see more about the role of Quality of Service (QoS) in the network. In general, QoS is comprised of a set of parameters used for evaluating network performance. And, the major parameters are normalized throughput, fairness, end-to-end latency, system efficiency, and packet loss rate.

 In the case of LTE fixed wideband services, LTE QoS Parameters is the most essential element in network planning and modeling to deliver user satisfied voice and data. Further, Advanced LTE QOS includes the priority option for specific users/services at the time of network traffic. 

           Below, we have given you the details about the basic requirements of QoS in the LTE network. Also, it showcases the importance of QoS in LTE-related applications.

Need of QoS in LTE

  • Users’ diverse service requirements
    • To achieve ultra-speed throughput (For instance: Video transmission)
    • Priority based services (For instance: Warning System)
    • Guaranteed bit rate (For instance: Voice call)
  • Limited Network Resources
    • To enhance the efficiency of constrained backhaul and radio spectrum
    • To control the network traffic

Mainly, LTE is introduced to satisfy the application needs of users in terms of low cost and high reliability while real-time implementation. Moreover, the QoS framework also includes the greater flexibility feature to fight against upcoming technical issues in deployments. 

For example, the main motive of the QoS-aware scheduling strategy is to achieve efficient packet scheduling, resource allocation, and network performance which eventually increase the degree of QoS and create the impression of good QoS among end-users. 

How does QoS evaluate in LTE? 

Before assessing the QoS of the LTE network, one should know the other key concept associated with QoS called bearers. In the 3GPP-LTE network, QoS Class Identifier (QCI) scheme assures that bearer traffic is assigned suitably to Quality of Service (QoS). Diverse bearer traffic needs dissimilar QoS which ultimately yields dissimilar QCI values. In fact, it has two categories of bearers as default and dedicated. On the one hand, the dedicated bearer is launched in the case of QoS requirements for a particular service. On the other hand, default bearer is launched in the case of CPE existence. Through the following procedure, the bearers can be launched and handled,

  • Launching bearers
  • Map the data flow of service to bearers
  • Execute the traffic policies and shaping techniques

Most importantly, the LTE network includes eNodeB and UE for implementing the above procedure. Here, eNodeB has a key player role in end-to-end QoS and policy execution. In this, it applies uplink and downlink rate policies with RF-based radio resource scheduling. Next, it utilizes ARP at the moment of assigning bearer resources. 

Similar to eNodeB, UE also has a key player role in policy. In this, it maps the data flow of service to bearers in the uplink direction. Overall, LTE bearer traffic is properly handled through UE and eNodeB and further categorizes into various classes/sets which comprise suitable LTE QoS parameters for the specific traffic type. Here, we have listed few common QoS metrics for your reference.

Examples of LTE QoS parameters include 

  • Packet Error Loss Ratio
  • Priority Management
  • Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR)
  • Packet Latency Budget
  • Non-Guaranteed Bit Rate (non-GBR)

For more clarity, we have described the list of QoS parameters associated with Evolved Packet System bearer. This will deliver you an overall mechanism known as QCI. Furthermore, our experts have more updates on LTE QoS parameters. If you are interested, we are ready to share that theoretical and empirical information. And also, suggest the appropriate LTE QoS parameters for your selected research project.

A detailed description about the QoS parameters is following.

QoS parameters per EPS-bearer

  • Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR)
    • QoS metrics / set of EPS-bearers
    • Support GBR-bearers
  • Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP) performed by eNB for QoS handling
    • For constrained resources, it is used to admit or drop or adjust bearers
  • QoS Class Identifier (QCI)
    • Rate / Value for RRM and Scheduling decisions
    • Detect the specific or set of service (s)
    • Some rates to be standardized while others will be trademarked
  • Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR)
    • Support non-GBR bearers
    • Total Maximum Bit Rate / set of bearers (for single user)

For illustration purposes, we can see about EPS bearers as a sample. In order to share the usual traffic, EPS bearers are introduced. It collects the traffic and passes it over to the application server. For instance: when the voice/video traffic is considered normal traffic, then it is transmitted through the physical channel by the EPS bearer. On the whole, these IP delivery approaches do not control the service quality. Below, we have listed the QoS metrics used in various LTE services with their unique specifications.

QoS for Different LTE Services

  • GBR
    • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Messages
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-2
      • Priority – 2.5
      • Packet Latency Budget – 50ms
    • Non-Mission Critical user plane Push To Talk Voice
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-2
      • Priority – 2
      • Packet Latency Budget – 100ms
    • Mission Critical user plane Push To Talk Voice
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-2
      • Priority – 0.7
      • Packet Latency Budget – 75ms
    • Non-Conversational Video (Buffered Streaming)
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-6
      • Priority – 3
      • Packet Latency Budget – 300ms
    • Conversational Video (Live streaming)
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-3
      • Priority – 4
      • Packet Latency Budget – 150ms
    • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Messages and Real-time Gaming
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-3
      • Priority – 3
      • Packet Latency Budget – 50ms
  • Non-GBR
    • Mission Critical Latency Sensitive Signalling
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-6
      • Priority – 0.5
      • Packet Latency Budget – 60ms
    • IMS Signalling
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-6
      • Priority – 1
      • Packet Latency Budget – 100ms
    • Low delay eMBB applications (UDP/TCP-based)
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-6
      • Priority – 6.8
      • Packet Latency Budget – 10ms
    • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Messages
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-2
      • Priority – 6.5
      • Packet Latency Budget – 50ms
    • Video (Buffered Streaming) TCP-based
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-6
      • Priority – 8
      • Packet Latency Budget – 300ms
    • Interactive Gaming, Voice and Video (Live Streaming)
      • Packet Error Loss Rate – 10-3
      • Priority – 7
      • Packet Latency Budget – 100ms

From the research perspective, our research team has given you current research notions in the LTE network which enhances the QoS. For your reference, here we have given only a few topics from top-research areas. More than these topics, we have loads of research ideas in several exciting research areas of the LTE network

Latest Research Ideas in LTE
  • Upgraded Statistics Acceleration
  • Resource-Aware LTE Network Load Balancing
  • Efficient Packet Normalization and Scheduling
  • Improved Ingress and Egress Traffic Control
  • Enhanced Resource Provisioning and Control
  • Advance techniques for Internet Protocol Defragmentation

LTE Scheduling Mechanisms

Once, you selected your topic, and then you have to focus on solutions to tackle the handpicked research problem. Our developers will provide the best assistance in selecting the appropriate techniques and algorithms based on your research problem complexity.  As mentioned earlier, LTE has two important functions as RRM and packet scheduling. From these two, our developers have given you the working process of scheduling mechanisms. In this scheduling mechanism, at first, data is assigned to the user equipment in RB where one UE is assigned with two or more RBs in the domain of frequency.

  • No need to make RBs adjacent in the downlink
  • Perform scheduling process by eNodeB to take decision at certain time interval (1ms)
  • Apply appropriate scheduling technique which consider the followings,
    • QoS need
    • Priorities of service
    • Interference state
    • Multi-users radio link quality state
    • And many more.

The below-specified sample model gives you details on how the LTE scheduler model is classified and what is the input and output LTE QoS parameters are used in it.

Performance Analysis of LTE Qos Parameters

Sample LTE Scheduler Model

  • For performing dynamic scheduling
    • Input Parameters – QoS, radio resources, CQI, ACK feedback and Traffic model
    • Output Parameters – Selected Users, TB size and AMC
  • For performing semi-persistent scheduling
    • Input Parameters – eNB buffer state and UE capacity
    • Output Parameters – RA types and Allotted RB 

We hope that you are clear in the packet scheduling model with their mechanism. Now, we can see the best result yielding packet scheduling algorithms and techniques. Similarly, we provide the best solutions for other problems.

Packet Scheduling Algorithms for LTE

  • Content-Unaware Schemes
    • QoS-Unaware Approaches
      • Maximum Rate Approach
      • PF Approach
      • Round Robin Approach
    • QoS-Aware Approaches
      • Latency and Queue-Aware Approach
      • Target bit rate-Aware Approach
      • Hybrid Approach
  • Content aware Schemes
    • Client-driven Approach
    • Quality-driven Scheduling
    • Proxy-driven Radio Resource Assignment
  • Other Major Algorithms
    • Deficit Round Robin (DRR)
    • Wireless Packet Scheduling (WPS)
    • Weighted Round Robin (WRR)
    • Idealized Wireless Fair Queuing (IWFQ)
    • Deficit Weighted Round Robin (DWRR)
    • Committed Burst Size / Information Rate (CBS / CIR)
    • Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED)
    • Channel-Condition Independent Packet Fair Queuing (CIF-Q)

QoE Parameters for LTE

In the earlier section, we have seen completely the LTE, QoS, the role of QoS in LTE and LTE QoS parameters. On the one hand, QoS has a significant impact on LTE., Similarly, on the other hand, Quality of Experience (QoE) has a considerable impact on LTE. QoE is nothing but the user’s experience/satisfaction gained at the time of availing their requested services. So, it is referred user-centric performance evaluation 5g qos parameters. QoE is evaluated through a subjective test that involves human power for achieving MOS (user’s perceived quality) in observation. For that, it utilizes a human visual system (HVS) for observation but it is an expensive approach. So, objective metrics are used to evaluate the user’s perceived quality. Here, we have given some math-based metrics used for assessing video quality as an example

  • Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
  • Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)
  • Mean Square Error (MSE)
  • Structural Similarity (SSIM)

The problem of QoE comprises QoE design along with the following influencing elements,

  • QoE management in video distribution over heterogeneous networks
  • End-to-end video distribution / broadcasting 
  • QoE evaluation (involves subjective test and objective test for QoE observation)

On the whole, we assure you that we provide the best service in every aspect of your LTE research and also ensure that we provide accurate LTE QoS parameters for reaching accepted expected results regardless of problem complexity