Introduction about Node Level Simulators in WSN: Nowadays, we use more than more technology for our daily needs. This kind of technology makes our life more comfortable and happy. Do your thing without technology our life is cannot be move. So, this is needed to know what are technologies are used in our daily routine.

“In this article, gives a more knowledge about Node-Level Simulator and methodologies in node level simulator, basic components of the node-level simulator, dataflow of this simulation process and discuss some advantages also.”

           This Node-Level simulator gives support to programmers for abstract of a network and hardware in the sensor nodes. It is works based on the centric operating system and this kind of operating system provides a service for file management and applications.

Methodologies for Node-Level design

  • Due to this Node-Level design, the methodology is useful for the designer to quickly complete their study it including the terms like scalability, time, bandwidth, and power.
  • This kind of methodology is used to simulate the sensor network’s behavior based on per node.

The above methodologies can be followed in Node Level Simulators in WSN for constructing an efficient simulator. The next topic is insisting about what are the components in the Node-Level Simulators.

Components of Node-Level Simulator

 Here, the components are classified into four categories. There are,

  • Visualization and Statistics
  • Sensor node model
  • Communication model
  • Physical Environment model

Visualization and Statistics

           In this model, we will see about visualization tools and simulation goals. Then a collection of results in simulation is important for the analysis process.

  • Visualization tools are used for,
  • Node lifetime parameter(Example- Battery power)
  • Mobility and spatial distribution of the nodes
  • Sensor node states
  • The connection between the nodes
  • Every nodes sensor reading
  • Link quantities
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics and their phenomena
  • Routes in end-to-end communication
  • Delays

Sensor model nodes

  • Here, Simulators that are placed in nodes can be also like a communication terminal, software execution platform, and also sensor host.
  • It is important to make a model for the properties of motion and position of a node. When the nodes are moved.
  • The designer must consider application-level codes then the nodes can be modeled based on some modules. There are,
    • Sensor behavior for example sensing noise
    • Services of Operating system
    • Communication protocol stack

In this model, the characteristics of energy can be classified based on the consumption of power in the nodes, and considering designs there is important to build a model.

Physical Environment Models   

           This is the next component of this simulator and in this model environmental key elements are considered as a sensor network and it is based on the interest of physical phenomenon.

  • The environmental model can be related with detailed simulation of multiple levels. Consider some examples in the physical word the moving objects are possible to interact by the point signal sources.
  • Here the networks are tightly integrated so we need enough amount simulation mechanisms to perform a simulation process on the other hand networks are perform sensing for knowing the characteristics of the environments.
  • Using differential equations the motion of the model will be calculated for the perfect model to avoid the trajectory profile.
  • Because the passive sensor it is does not change the characteristics of the environment and perform a separate operation for simulation.
Implementing Node Level Simulators in WSN Wireless Sensor Network

Communication model 

           This is another component model in the Node Level Simulators in WSN. Communication can take place in multilevel layers because of the modeling details of the particular node.

  • It has a chance to simulate a process perform based on the communication in the network layer or a Media Access Layer. A stochastic process that is followed by behaviors at a low level is an example of this process.
  • In other words, Simulation of collisions in transmission when it is simultaneous and delay of RF propagation are in physical layer communication level because of having well-defined models of the simulator.

The above four components are mainly used in Node Level simulation in wireless sensor networks. Then we are going to discuss the dataflow process in this simulation. It is following a heterogeneous architecture for performing the best real-world application forms multiple domains.

Dataflow Processing in Node Level Simulators in WSN

  • This process is followed by some architecture. There are,
    • Convey Hybrid core computer
    • The SGI System
    • NVIDIA
    • Maxeler MaxNodes(It’s a programmable gate array for accelerate solutions)
    • ATI Graphics processing units
    • ClearSpeed Processor
    • Cell Broadband Engine Architecture
  • It has the most important comparison between quantitative and qualitative its useful for each software development tool and hardware resource.

These are the architecture is followed by the Node-Level Simulators. We have projects based on these kinds of architecture. Then we discuss some advantages of using this simulator.

Advantages of Node-Level Simulators

  • Better power-performance ratio.
  • Better price-performance when it is compared with symmetric CPU architecture of traditional systems.

These two are the main advantages of the Node-Level simulator in SDN. The upcoming topic is NS2 Simulator and its Wireless Sensor Network Extension and additionally some main functionality and some more examples.

NS2 Simulator with its Sensor Network Extension

  • NS2 simulator is also referred to as an open-source network simulator that is mainly built for IP networks and wired and wireless network.
  • NS2 provides a logical address for every node and the notion of node location is determined by the Simple Wireless channel model for mobile and also wireless devices.
  • The complex network should decrease the simulation speed.
  • Simulation of a wireless network is extending to the wireless sensor networks for example TDMA MAC and 802.11 MAC.

Functionalities of Node-Level-Simulation

  • Tcl Scripts controls the Simulation which is processed in a dynamic manner that means the application is based on time and NS2 structure written in C++ language.
  • IN NS2 have some protocols stack and consider layer which is placed in protocol stacks are the component of NS2.
  • NS2 Simulator always implements the handling events and handler’s interface.

Requirements and Examples

  • Sensor Network Routing
    • GAF routing (Geographical Adaptive Fidelity)
    • Directed Diffusion
    • GEAR (Geographical routing)
  • Ad-hoc routing
    • TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm)
    • DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector)
    • AODV(Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector)
    • DSR(Dynamic Source Routing)
  • Media Access Control
    • TDMA
    • IEEE 802.3
    • IEEE 802.11
  • Transmission Control Protocol
    • SACK implementation
    • Reno implementation
    • Vegas implementation
    • Tahoe implementation

From the above topic, we are improving the knowledge based on Requirements and some examples for Node-Level Simulator and we will discuss functionalities also. Then will move on to the next topic which is SensorSim. Let we see about SensorSim detailed.  

What is SensorSim?

  • This SensorSim provides hybrid simulation in the time of simulation process when it executes an application running time of the real sensor nodes.
  • IT is mainly used to construct a model with energy for sensor nodes and its communication purpose then it simulates the power properties.
  • In discrete event simulator for construct a flexible method with some physical phenomena which is achieved by extension of NRL sensor networks.

So this is the introduction about SensorSim is used in Node Level Simulators in WSN. Finally, we are going to discuss TOSSIM Simulator. It is abbreviated from TinyOS SIMulator which is useful for running TinyOS applications with more number Berkeley motes.

TinyOS Simulator

  • In TOSSIM the topmost layer code cannot be modified and this simulator produces some interrupts when the nodes get executed with the use of event queues.
  • This simulator is mainly modeled for the high potential network which is connected by more than a thousand nodes. Because of its potentiality, it will work scalable.
  • TOSSIM simulator is also useful for compiling the source code of nesC into a simulation component.
  • These simulators have some low levels of components. There are,
    • Radio front end
    • Analog to Digital conversation (ADC)
    • System clock
  • It converts the hardware interrupts into an event in a discrete event simulator.
  • The visualization package of TOSSIM is called as TinyViz and it does not support java applications.
  • This visualization package has the power of executing simulations control for some example,
    • Injecting Packets
    • Modified ADC reading
    • To change the channel properties.

The above content insists on the mechanism in TinyOS simulator and its visualization packets. So far, we will discuss the basics about Node Level Simulators in WSN, components process flow, and additionally, gain some knowledge in SensorSim and TOSSIM also. We hope this article is very useful for you. We have more number of developed and developing projects in this kind of topics and other domains such as telecommunication also.