Ns2 core area

     NS2 Core Area is the example for a multi-hop packet based wireless network is Mobile Ad Hoc Network. A set of mobile nodes that can communicate and move at the same time is defined as Ad-Hoc network which does not using any kind of fix wired network infrastructure. It can change their network locations and configure itself.


     The dynamic connection between the arbitrary wireless mobile nodes are forming the MANETs which does not using any existing infrastructure in Ns2 area. So, routing in MANET is totally different from other traditional routing techniques in core area. Each node in MANET functions like a host and a router where the nodes also used in forwarding/receiving their own packets.

     A few hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes from anywhere can form the wireless sensor network is use in Ns-2 area. The micro-controller, a radio transceiver along with an antenna, and an energy source, usually a battery, an interfacing electronic circuit are the some sensor node equipment. The name Bluetooth is also used in Ns-2 core-area. In The Bluetooth was named after 10th century which unite and controlled Denmark and Norway.


     The different kinds of features are provide by the Bluetooth. There is a low power, low cost, and short range radio network standard. The unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) are supports the range of 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. The Wi-Fi network specify via IEEE 802.11b/g/a standard is very complementary.

     The Bluetooth technology was finally introduce in 1998. So the Bluetooth has many specification versions have release which also uses Ns-2 core area. For example Versions 1.0 and 1.0B [iv]. It had too many problems and restraints to successfully develop Bluetooth devices for manufacturers.

Specification of Bluetooth

The lacks of interoperability among devices are the main issue associate with the Bluetooth. The most successful operating version of Bluetooth is the specification version 1.1 of Bluetooth technology. The earlier versions of Bluetooth found many of the problems which are corrected in Bluetooth 1.1. The devices using Bluetooth 1.1 have much more interoperability which is the result in Ns2-core area.


     The wireless personal area network (PAN) uses Zigbee in Ns-2 core-area. The each PAN has thousands of nodes which are support by Zigbee on Ns2 core area. Zigbee devices can able to work with low power. So battery life is more and energy consumption is less. Zigbee technology used in many applications, such as industry, medical applications, residential.

The features and characteristics provide by the Zigbee technology [v] are as follows:
  • ZigBee control through one button and network connect several units.
  • A remote control device reduces manpower. ZigBee network is control by a remote control device at a specific range and as the control device is present centrally.
  • Zig-Bee are design on low-power frequency while devices reliable.
  • ZigBee technology supports 3 different kinds of devices. They  coordinator, router and end-user devices.

      Ns2 core area uses proactive routing protocols which periodically exchange routing data to maintain the path and determine path in advance. On the other hand reactive routing protocols used in Ns-2 core-area. It is require to send some data to that node when it determines a route to some destination node only. An alternative path is determine again when any time a path fails. Hybrid routing takes the advantages of both table driven and on-demand algorithms.