NS2 Projects for B.E
Ns2 projects for B.E is the general process also for creating an simulation. In this simulation of network process can also divide into several steps:
1. Topology definition:
- the creation of basic Ns2 for B.E facilities and also define their interrelationships very easily. A system of containers and also help present in Ns2-projects for B.E which facilitates this process.
2. Model development:
- models are added to projects for B.E simulation (for example, UDP, IPv4, point-to-point devices and links, applications); most of the time this is done by using helpers.
3. Node and link configuration:
- models set their default values in Ns2 projects for B.E (for example, the size of packets sent by an application or MTU of a point-to-point link); the attribute system can do this process.
- simulation is used in Ns2 for B.E which facilities generate events; data requested by the user is log.
5. Performance analysis:
- The data is available as a time-stamp event trace when the simulation is finish. The tool like R is used to statically analyze this data with draw conclusions in projects for B.E.
6. Graphical Visualization:
- In a Ns2 B.E simulation the raw or process data can be collected and graphed by using tools like Gnuplot, matplotlib or XGRAPH.
The overall performance of a telephony or computer network is achieve by Quality of service (QoS). Particularly the performance seen by the users of the network is also done by this. The quality of service is quantitatively measure by several related aspects of the network service are often consider, such as availability, error rates, throughput, bandwidth, transmission delay, jitter, etc.
Quality Of Service (QoS)
Circuit switch networks are refer in Ns2 B.E. Especially circuit switch networks are intend for voice transmission, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or GSM, have QoS in the core protocol and do not need additional procedures to achieve it. Some of the unique selling points of ATM are shorter data units and built-in QoS for applications such as video on demand.
IEEE 802.11 Standards used in Ns2 projects for B.E
Following are the different IEEE standards for Wi-Fi [vi],
- 802.11 is the wireless local area networks (WLANs) standard which supports 1- 2 Mbps.
- For 5 GHz band 802.11a is a high speed WLANs standard. It uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) encoding scheme in WLANs.
- 802.11b is a wireless standard for 2.4 GHz band which supports 11 Mbps. It uses only DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum).
- For 802.11d is an international roaming standard. It automatically configures devices to meet local radio frequency (RF) regulations.
- Also 802.11e is addressing the quality of service (QoS) requirements for all IEEE wireless radio interfaces.
The Ns2 projects for B.E uses Bluetooth 1.2 technology: Many new devices in market which also uses new Bluetooth technology. The latest cell phones are being sold with the newer Bluetooth specification version 1.2. It has backward compatible with Bluetooth 1.1 version. To reduce radio interference the adaptive Frequency Hopping helps by eliminating the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence. Frequency Hopping increases the speeds (1 Mbps) also for faster transmission etc.
The mobile, wireless network also uses Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) which is a responsive and efficient routing protocol. Unlike, it also use graph-theoretic notions of shortest paths and also transitive reach ability to find routes before it establish routing algorithms.
GPSR exploits the correspondence between geographic position and connectivity in a wireless network which also use the positions of nodes to make packet forwarding decisions. GPSR also uses greedy forwarding algorithm to forward packets to nodes also in a network that are always progressively closer to the destination.