Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networking
In fact, stray capacitances significantly affect the magnetic component performance in such a way that the current Equivalent circuit of the transformer model with self-capacitances and mutual capacitance and with a single lumped stray capacitance referred to the primary side. waveform on the excitation side would be distorted and the overall efficiency of converters would be decreased. Subjected to high-voltage stresses, Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networking stray capacitance between windings causes leakage currents and consequently contributes EMI Considering an equivalent model of two-winding PT, as and Cpso are used to account for the self-capacitances of the primary and the secondary windings and the mutual capacitance between the two windings, respectively.
It is desirable to keep Cpso to be as small as possible, and good EMI results could be achieved. The equivalent capacitors referred to the primary side can approximately be determined by the following relations where k is the turns ratio. Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networking The mutual capacitance Cpso due to the electrical coupling between the primary and secondary windings can approximately be measured directly by shorting both primary and secondary sides. The single equivalent capacitance referred to the primary side Cstr in can approximately be computed In the case of PTs, static layer capacitances can easily be estimated since the windings consist of parallel and flat conductors.
Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networkings
Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networking The formula for the capacitance between two parallel conductive plates is given by where ε0 is the permittivity of free air space, and εr is the relative permittivity of the material. In addition, S represents the overlapping surface area of the two plates. The distance between the plates is shows an equivalent potential distribution model in dependence on the internal two layers of the same winding with opposite directions. Assuming that the potential distribution along the turns linearly varies, where n is the number of turns in each layer, and Ui represents the potential in each pair of plates. U is the voltage potential between the two terminations of the winding. The turn-to-turn capacitance can be ignored by comparing with the layer-tolayer capacitance due to a very small overlapping surface area. The total energy associated with the electric field in the two layers is given by The equivalent capacitance of the same winding can be expressed If there are m layers in series for the same winding as the same connection the overall equivalent capacitance could be deduced by equating the electric energy stored in all layer capacitors for the connection in which provides an equivalent constant voltage distribution along the turns in each layer. Hereby, a lower equivalent capacitance Co in the winding with the same direction has been shown.
Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networking Regarding stray capacitance in different windings, the voltage difference between the high potential side and the low potential side can be expressed by with the assumption that the linear distributed voltage along different windings is still valid. With the same procedure, the equivalent stray capacitance referred to the primary winding can be deduced by Based on the preceding analysis for the stray capacitance, the optimal solutions can be concluded as follows reducing static layer capacitance by enhancing the distance or lowering the overlapping surface area between the two conductor plates; Cooperative cache sharing among ISPs for reducing inter-ISP transit cost in content-centric networking reducing the number of turns in each layer or/and increasing the number of layers reducing the number of intersections between the primary and the secondary arranging the winding configurations to obtain the minimal energy associated with the electric field.